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Linux File Structure

Discussion in 'Linux / Unix Discussion' started by michael78, Dec 10, 2005.

  1. michael78

    michael78 Terabyte Poster

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    Right daft question time, With Windows you usually install programs/applications in "Program Files" Folder where do you install Linux Programs in the file structure...:oops:



    Cheers in advance

    Michael
     
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  2. ffreeloader

    ffreeloader Terabyte Poster

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    Linux file structure is much different than Window's file structure. To understand it you have to get away from thinking along Window's way of doing things.

    Linux puts all the executables together, all the libraries together, all the configuration files together, all the data files together, etc.... It's a much more secure way of doing things. This way all the executables that can harm a system are kept in the same place and regular users are not given permission to execute them. That directory is also not put in into their PATH--the same thing as Window's "environment variables".

    Here is a brief run down of the basic file structure. You will find some differences between distro's but it's a good overall look at the Linux file structure.
     
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  3. michael78

    michael78 Terabyte Poster

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    ffreeloader, so am I correct in saying when you install a program you don't get a choice of where to install it it just gets installed in the folders you mentioned?
     
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  4. hbroomhall

    hbroomhall Petabyte Poster Gold Member

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    Depends. With pre-compiled apps for given distros then you often don't get a choice. With apps that you compile yourself and are not targeted at a particular Unix then you can usualy set the destination yourself.

    For these second type of apps I general choose /usr/local.

    Harry.
     
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  5. ffreeloader

    ffreeloader Terabyte Poster

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    Pretty much what hbroomhall said. What you can do though is have a great deal of flexibility in how you mount your partitions. I create /, /home, /usr, /var, and sometimes /tmp directories using LVM (Logical Volume Manager). With it you can shrink, expand, delete, move, etc... any partition. That way if you're running out of space on a hard a hard drive you can add a hard drive, and using LVM, move a partition or two onto it and expand your directories out as needed. It's really slick.

    I like the Linux file structure much better than the Windows way of doing things. It's much more logical and flexible once you really understand it, and how to work with it.
     
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  6. michael78

    michael78 Terabyte Poster

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    Cheers guys I'm starting to really get to grips with it now. It's been difficult coming from a Windows background...:dry
     
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  7. Boycie
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    Boycie Senior Beer Tester

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    bad link Fred
     
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  8. Jakamoko
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    Jakamoko On the move again ...

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    Works for me, Boyce :oops:
     
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  9. ffreeloader

    ffreeloader Terabyte Poster

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    Works for me too. What kind of error are you getting, Boyce?
     
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  10. tripwire45
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    tripwire45 Zettabyte Poster

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    Kewl link, Freddy. :)
     
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  11. Boycie
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    Boycie Senior Beer Tester

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    See the attachment Fred

    Tried pasting the URL into the browser and still won't work :blink
     

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  12. ffreeloader

    ffreeloader Terabyte Poster

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    That's a dns error, Boyce. The link is good as everybody else can use it. See if you can go to http://209.197.236.44 That's the ip address for comptechdoc.org.
     
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  13. Boycie
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    Boycie Senior Beer Tester

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    Strange. I can't open the link up by domain name or IP address yet a tracert goes through :blink

    See attached
     

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  14. ffreeloader

    ffreeloader Terabyte Poster

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    You might try flushing all your dns cache and possibly try adding another name server to your list of dns servers in /etc/resolv.conf to see if that will allow you to resolve the name.

    The IP address is most likely a server that does virtual hosting so it has several dns names associated with it because I can't connect to the IP address and get the actual site either. All I get is a blank page, and if I add any of the paths to the html files I get 404 errors. (That's page not found on this server.)

    I ran a whois and traceroutes against the name servers and domain names. The guy that owns 01domain.net (the nameservers for comptechdoc.org resolve to that domain) also owns another domain called data393.net and it hosts the name servers for 01domain.net according to another whois query. It's quite a trail and the guy owns several domains and blocks of IP addresses. He's from South America but all his domains are in the US.

    See if adding ns1.01domain.net to the top of the /etc/resolv.conf name server list. Then see if it will resolve the site. What may be happening is that for some reason your ISP's name servers won't resolve those domain names. Maybe they blacklisted them for some reason. It's hard telling.

    Have you run a whois against comptechdoc.org to see if you get a response from it?
     
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  15. Boycie
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    Boycie Senior Beer Tester

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    Strange... Link Works on my XP machine using Firefox...

    When i get back to my laptop i will try again....
     
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  16. tripwire45
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    tripwire45 Zettabyte Poster

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    That's traceroute in Linux, young man. :wink:
     
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  17. Boycie
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    Boycie Senior Beer Tester

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    Very true Trip :tune

    Strange mind. Just got back to my laptop (Ubuntu) and freds original link is working fine :blink
     
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